New-Onset Diabetes After Kidney Transplantation and Pretransplant Hypomagnesemia
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Aim: Hypomagnesemia is a frequent finding in kidney transplant patients and plays a causal role in insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pretransplant magnesium (Mg) level is a risk factor for the development of new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) and the presence of relationship between pretransplant hypomagnesemia and the development period of NODAT. Methods: Four hundred and nineteen nondiabetic renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were divided into NODAT and non-NODAT groups. The time of diagnosis of patients with NODAT was divided into 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12 months, and after 12 months. Patients' characteristics and pretransplant Mg levels in NODAT were compared with non-NODAT, and it was investigated whether pretransplant hypomagnesemia was a risk factor for the development of NODAT. Results: Totally 70 (16.6%) patients (36 female [F], mean age 51.7 8.2 years) were diagnosed with NODAT. Three hundred and forty-nine patients (115 F, mean age 43.2 +/- 12.5 years) did not have NODAT. Pretransplant mean Mg level was 1.97 +/- 0.40 mg/dL in patients with NODAT, while it was 2.5 +/- 0.45 mg/dL in non-NODAT patients (P < .001). Serum Mg level was found to be similar in subgroups according to the development period of NODAT (P = .07). When patients were stratified according to quartiles of Mg level, the frequency of NODAT was significantly higher in patients in the lower quartile (Mg < 2.1 mg/dL; P < .001). Older age, high body mass index, and low pretransplant serum Mg levels were established as risk factors for developing NODAT. According to the quartile of Mg level, the risk of developing NODAT was highest in the lowest quartile. Conclusion: Pretransplant hypomagnesemia is an independent risk factor of NODAT. Therefore, it is necessary to closely monitor the Mg levels in the posttransplant period.