Clinical profile and etiologies of children with central diabetes insipidus: a single-center experience from Turkey
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical, anthropometric, hormonal, and radiological characteristics of children with central diabetes insipidus (DI). Methods: Case records of 34 children (22 boys and 12 girls) with documented central DI referred to the Pediatric Endocrinology and Adolescent Clinic of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine were reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.4 +/- 5.6 years (range, 0.08-16 years). All patients underwent anterior pituitary function assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary at diagnosis. The median duration of follow-up was 7.9 +/- 4.5 years. Results: The etiology of central DI was organic in 22 (64.7%) patients, trauma in 2 (5.9%) patients, and idiopathic in 10 (29.4%) patients. Organic causes consisted of craniopharyngioma in 7 patients, Langerhans cell histiocytosis in 4 patients, germinoma in 4 patients, holoprosencephaly in 3 patients, astrocytoma in 1 patient, cavernous hemangioma in 1 patient, Rathke's cleft cyst in 1 patient, and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy in 1 patient. Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were documented in 18 (53%) patients. Organic central DI group had a greater prevalence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency when compared with the idiopathic group (66% and 10%, respectively; p=0.007). The final height of patients with organic etiology were significantly lower than the idiopathic group (155 and 178, cm respectively; p=0.021). Conclusions: Etiological diagnosis is possible in a significant proportion (70.6%) of children with central DI. Findings of this study suggest that accompanying anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies and short stature may be considered as indicators of organic etiology.