Vitreous Levels of VEGF, IL-8, and TNF-alpha in Retinal Detachment
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Purpose: To determine intravitreal levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Methods: Vitreous samples were collected from 22 eyes of 22 patients during vitrectomy procedures for RD. For controls, vitreous samples were obtained from 12 eyes of 12 patients without RDs during pars plana vitrectomies. Control group patients included four with macular holes and eight with epiretinal membranes; none had any associated vitreoretinopathy. All vitreous samples were immediately frozen at -80 degrees C until assayed. Results: VEGF concentrations were significantly elevated in samples from patients with RDs compared to samples from control patients (p < 0.001). Vitreous concentrations of IL-8 were also significantly elevated in patients with macular edema when compared to control patients (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in vitreous concentrations of TNF-alpha in subjects with RDs compared to control subjects (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Increases in IL-8 (an inflammatory angiogenic mediator) and VEGF (a regulatory mediator of cellular proliferation and permeability) may be related to development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.