Value of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Grading
AuthorSokmen, Bedriye Koyuncu
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Background. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters in estimation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) grading. Materials and methods. Twenty-nine patients with histopathologically diagnosed as 42 HCC at explant were included in this retrospective study. All patients were examined by 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging with the use of 4-channel phased array body coil. in addition to routine pre- and postcontrast sequences, IVIM (16 different b factors varying from 0 to 1300 s/mm(2)) and conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (3 different b factors of 50, 400, 800 s/mm2) were obtained with single-shot echo planar spin echo sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters including mean D (true diffusion coefficient), D* (pseudo-diffusion coefficient associated with blood flow), and f (perfusion fraction) values were calculated. Histopathologically, HCC was classified as low (grade 1, 2) and high (grade 3, 4) grade in accordance with the Edmondson-Steiner score. Quantitatively, ADC, D, D*, and f values were compared between the low- and high-grade groups by Student t test. the relationship between the parameters and histologic grade was analyzed using the Spearman's correlation test. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the parameters, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Results. High-grade HCCs had significantly lower ADC and D values than low grade groups (P = .005 and P = .026, retrospectively); ADC and D values were inversely correlated with tumor grade (r = -0.519, P = .011, r = -0.510, P = .026, respectively). High-grade HCCs had significantly higher f values when compared with the low-grade group (P = .005). the f values were positively correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.548, P = .007). the best discriminative parameter was f value. Cut-off value of 32% of f values showed sensitivity of 75.6% and a specificity of 73.5%. Conclusion. ADC values and IVIM parameters such as f values appear to reflect the grade of HCCs.