Examinations of sperm by light and electron microscopic levels: Friendly preparation techniques
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CitationErsoy Canillioglu, Yasemin; Erkanli Senturk, Gözde;Hürdağ, Canan. (2014). Examinations of sperm by light and electron microscopic levels: Friendly preparation techniques. In:Microscopy: advances in scientific research and education. Ed. A. Méndez-Vilas. Spain, Formatex Research Center, p. 662-668
Sperm examinations may be useful in both clinical and research settings, for investigating male fertility status as well as monitoring spermatogenesis during and following male fertility regulation and other interventions. Among the possible causes of male infertility, defects of sperm morphology represent an important factor that may explain decreased fertilizing potential of sperm. The limits of light microscopy can be overcome by the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) permits the exploration of the ultrastructural organelles rigorously which are characterizing sperm abnormalities. Electron microscopy allowed us to identify systematic sperm defects that affect the vast majority of sperm in a semen sample and non-systematic sperm defects, a heterogeneous combination of randomly distributed alterations affecting the head and the tail organelles in a varied percentage of ejaculated sperm. Correct diagnosis of specific altered sperm phenotypes is important for the advancement of new therapies. Observing a liquid material, sectioning and visualization are more difficult compared to the technically solid materials. The problems resulting from these may cause diagnostic problems. Preparation techniques we tried to display in this chapter will possibly help researchers willing to study sperm and obtain real-like visuals.